Rosanna Vilardo Mannarino*, Maria de Fatima Pombo March**, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves da Cunha**, Guilherme Milward***, Jose Guimaraes Gomes***, Clemax Couto Sant Anna**
*Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Gaffree e Guinle University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, **Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, *** Pediatric Respiratory Endoscopy Section, Fernandes Figueira Institute- Oswaldo Cruz Foundation.
Background: To describe the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and bronchial lavage (BL) in the etiological diagnosis of chronic pneumonia in children in a pediatric tertiary center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Methods: Observational descriptive study consisting of children with chronic pneumonia. Fibre-optic bronchoscopy was done to collect BAL followed by BL. The collected materials were analyzed for cellularity and pathology, cultured for bacteria, fungi, viruses and M. tuberculosis. Material cultured for Gram-positive cocci (S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) was positive if > 103 cfu/mL-1.
Results: Twenty two children were included in the study. Male: Female ratio was 14:8 with mean age of 3.5 years. In 7 (31.8%) patients, etiological diagnosis was determined by BAL and 4 (18.1%) by BL. Bacteria were isolated in 4 (18.1%) BAL and in 3 (13.6%) BL. Conclusion: BAL contributed most frequently for the etiological diagnosis of chronic pneumonia than BL. Both methods proved to be safe.