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Swine Flu Center
What is swine flu?
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Designated hospitals for isolation and treatment of swine flu patients
How to isolate a patient with swine flu
How to suspect swine flu
Infection Control Practices in Health Care Settings
When to test for H1N1 Influenza
Testing for swine flu
Laboratory Confirmation and Infection control in novel Influenza (H1N1)
Treatment of the new HINI flu virus
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WHAT IS SWINE FLU?
Karishma Kulkarni, Nikhil Thatte, Rucha Shelgikar, Ira Shah
Medical Sciences Department, Pediatric Oncall. Mumbai
Address for Correspondence:
Dr Ira Shah, Editor- Pediatric Oncall, 1/B Saguna, 271/B St. Francis Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai 400056. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
What is swine flu?
Influenza A (H1N1) (referred to as "swine flu" early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009 with the 1st case in India being detected on May 16th, 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) signaled that a pandemic of this novel H1N1 flu was underway, thus classifying it as Phase 6. This virus was originally referred to as “swine flu” because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs (swine) in North America. But further study has shown that this new virus is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and bird (avian) genes and human genes. Scientists call this a "quadruple reassortant" virus.
What are the symptoms of Swine Flu?
The symptoms of novel H1N1 flu virus in people include
, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches,
, chills and fatigue, which are quite similar to those of seasonal flu. A significant number of people who have been infected with this virus also have reported diarrhea and vomiting.
What is the difference between swine flu and regular seasonal influenza?
Swine flu is caused by a novel strain of the influenza virus called H1N1. This virus is spreading from person-to-person, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. You will not be able to tell the difference between seasonal flu and influenza A (H1N1) without medical help. Typical symptoms to watch for are similar to seasonal viruses and include fever, cough, headache, body aches, sore throat and runny nose. Like seasonal flu, H1N1 swine flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic diseases. Only your medical practitioner and local health authority can confirm a case of influenza A (H1N1). If they suspect any symptoms they will send your blood sample,
and nasopharyngeal (nose to mouth) for testing to laboratories.
What care should other family members take?
Remain home at the earliest sign of illness.
Minimize contact in the community to the extent possible.
Designate a single household family member as caregiver for the patient to minimize interactions with asymptomatic persons.
Is swine flu dangerous?
In most patients swine flu causes a mild disease. Only in certain high risk population is the infection severe. Influenza A (H1N1) is a new virus and one to which most people have no or little immunity and, therefore, this virus could cause more infections than are seen with seasonal flu. Thus the overall vulnerability of the population can play a major role. For example, people with underlying chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease,
, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and several others, are more likely to experience severe or lethal infections. The prevalence of these conditions, combined with other factors such as nutritional status makes swine flu a dangerous infection for these patients to catch.
In which patients is swine flu more dangerous?
The following groups are at a higher risk for swine flu related complications -
Children less than 5 years old
Persons aged 65 years or older
Children and adolescents (less than 18 years) who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy and who might be at risk for experiencing
after influenza virus infection
Adults and children who have chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular, hepatic, hematological, neurologic, neuromuscular, or metabolic disorders
Adults and children who have immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by HIV)
Residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities.
What are the warning signs to take a child to hospital?
If you see any of the following emergency warning signs, you should take your child to hospital immediately:
Fast breathing or trouble breathing
Bluish or gray skin color
Not drinking enough fluids
Severe or persistent vomiting
Not waking up or not interacting
Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held
Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough
How to Collect Throat and Nasal Swab
Swine Flu qustions related to isolation and quarantine
Prevention and prophylaxis
Testing for H1N1 influenza
Travel information and swine flu
Swine Flu - how dangerous is it?
Use of surgical masks to prevent H1N1 influenza
What is Swine flu?
Approach to Management of H1N1 Influenza
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Should teicoplannin, colistin be used in case of neonatal sepsis where culture does not reveal any organism_?
No, it should be used only after drug sensitivity report
Yes, under guidance of an infectious disease expert
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