NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

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Last Updated : 1/6/2011
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Kumud P Mehta
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Diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome is by simple urine examination in a child who presents with edema. The edema is generalized involving eyes, abdominal wall, genitals and ankles; ascites may be present and B.P is normal in majority of cases.

Urine examination shows presence of proteins- 3+ to 4+ by sulphosalicylic acid test or heat test or dipstick; RBC's absent or 10 - 12/HPF; no macrohematuria or persistent hematuria, no pyuria. Fatty or waxy casts may be present.

In the first attack, hospitalize the patient to come to a complete diagnosis and to plan the treatment. It is important to do the blood tests for serum proteins - Total proteins and albumin (serum alb < 2.5g/dl); serum cholesterol ( > 200mg/dl) and BUN/S. creatinine (normal). Although steroid therapy is the backbone of therapy for nephrotic syndrome; oral prednisolone should be started after checking for infection, hypovolemia and secondary causes.



Contributor Information and Disclosures Kumud P Mehta
Consultant Pediatrician & Pediatric Nephrologist, Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for children, Mumbai, India


First Created : 1/3/2001
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