They are instruments used to provide oxygen during intermittent positive pressure respiration (IPPR) via an endotracheal tube or a facemask. They are used in emergencies when somebody is facing breathing difficulties to provide artificial ventilation.

It is a compressible, self-inflating, non-rebreathing silicon bag, which has an inlet through which air and additional O2 is supplied and an outlet through this can be transferred to the patient. The gas enters in the self-expanding bag through one way valve which restricts the flow back from the inlet. When the bag is compressed, the air is pushed forward through the mask in the pharynx or throat which in turn leads to wind pipe and then in the lungs, hence assisting in artificial ventilation.

There are other valves which prevent rebreathing of the expired air and excessive pressure from developing. It basically increases the FIO 2 of the inspired O2 from 40% to almost 90% (if used with a reservoir).

Some of these self-inflating bags come with pressure restrictor or manometer tube connector or pressure gauge connector. The manometer connector (or the pressure gauge connector) can be used to connect manometer tube (or pressure gauge) to monitor the airway pressure. It is strongly recommended to have one of these safety features in self-inflating bags when they are used in pediatric cases.

It comes in various sizes as per the age group: -

- Neonate: - 250ml

- Pediatric: - 500ml

- Adults: - 1600 ml

It is sterilized by dissembling the parts and cleaning the silicon bag with soap & water and the plastic valves with chemical sterilization

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