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The Insulins available now are the "pure" varieties and contain negligible risks of immunogenicity. These are of four types - beef, porcine, mixed and human insulin
Beef insulin differs from human insulin in three amino acids, namely A8, A 10 and B 30.
Porcine insulin differs from human insulin in only one amino acid i.e. B30 position. Thus, porcine insulin is less immunogenic than beef insulin.
Mixed insulin contains a mixture of bovine and porcine insulin and it is more antigenic than single species
Human insulin is pure and has the same amino acid structure as that of native insulin. They are made by genetic engineering or by transformation from porcine insulin by substituting alanine with threonine in the B30 position.
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