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PAIN MANAGEMENT IN CHILDREN
Alternative methods of management of pain:
Hypnosis: Induction of an altered state of consciousness, wherein the child is suggestible to alterations of sensation and perception. Examples: the child with CPRS may imagine herself turning off a pain switch to reduce sensation in an affected limb.
Massage and touch: Application of touch or force to soft tissues, usually without causing movement or change in joint position. Examples: Rubbing the site of a needle injection, stroking/ kneading sore muscles.
Mental imagery: A multisensory representation of experience. Examples: Having children imagine themselves in a pleasant place doing some thing they really like to do, involving as many senses as possible in the image.
Music therapy: Use of music to modify mood and distract the child from pain. Examples: having the child sing a song or listen to favorite music.
Play therapy: Use of play to desensitize or educate a child about their plan and painful medical procedures. Examples: Play with medical props supervised by a play therapist or child life specialist.
Relaxation: Techniques that reduce the stress response and produce feelings of mental calmness, usually involving a repetitive stimulus. Examples: Progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, autogenics.
TENS: Use of electrical stimulation that can be applied to the skin at different rates and intensities, to relieve pain. Examples: Positioning of TENS unit over muscle in spasm.
Last updated on 03-04-2002
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