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Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta-cells of the pancreas. It is a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 5700 kDa. It is formed from proinsulin after cleavage into insulin and C-peptide (Fig 1).
The normal insulin secretion is 0.5-0.7 units/kg per day.
Physiological Functions of Insulin
Stimulates entry of glucose into cells for utilization as energy source.
Stimulates entry of amino acids into cells, enhancing protein synthesis
Enhances fat storage and prevents mobilization of fat for energy (lipolysis)
Promotes storage of glucose as glycogen in muscle and liver cells (glycogenesis)
Inhibits formation of glucose from non carbohydrates (gluconeogenesis)
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