My child complains burning on & off, while passing urine.
Also, he has backache. What to do?
A: Burning while passing urine and backache are symptoms of
kidney problems, because kidneys are placed at the posterior abdominal
wall on either side of spine. Commonly these symptoms occur due
to urinary tract infection and in absence of fever, renal stones
should be ruled out.
My childs urine examination showed presence of plenty of
crystals. However he has no complaints. What should I do?
If urine examination shows plenty of crystals, but the child
has no complaints, there is no need to worry. But if there is
family history of kidney stones, 24 hours urine excretion of calcium,
uric acid, oxalate etc may be done to detect hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria,
hyperoxaluria, which are precursors of stone formation.
What are urinary stones? I thought stones were seen in adults.
Does it occur in children?
Stones are formed when substances such as calcium, phosphate,
uric acid, oxalate are in excess in urine, become insoluble and
form concretions and settle on a matrix in tubules. Urinary infections
can increase the size of these concretions and further harden
them. Although stones are common in adults, they can occur in
How do these urinary stones occur?
Stones occur due to abnormal and excessive accumulation of
stone forming substances in urine which are normally dissolved
due to presence of substances which inhibit stones formation like
citrate, pyrophosphates. If the concentration of calcium, oxalate,
uric acid, cystine etc is very high and inhibitors are low, stone
formation occurs. The abnormal metabolic disorders can be inherited
e.g. Hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, cystinuria. Less intake of
fluids, urinary infection, congenital anomalies of urinary tract
with obstruction, hyperparathyroidism,
RTA (renal tubular acidosis)
are causes of renal calculi or stones.
How do I know whether my child is suffering from kidney stones?
Kidney stones can give rise to abdominal pain, hematuria (blood
in urine), vomiting, backache, recurrent urinary tract infections
or are accidentally discovered on USG (Ultrasonography).
How does one diagnose presence of renal stones?
Diagnosis is made by plain X-ray of kidneys, ureters and urinary
bladder or ultrasonography.
My childs X-rays showed no stones. However, the doctor says
that he is suffering from kidney stones. Is it possible?
Some kidney stones are radiolucent i.e. cannot be seen on plain
x-rays but can be diagnosed by Ultrasonography e.g. uric acid,
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updated on 04-04-2001