KALA AZAR (VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS)
What is the Kala azar?
Kalaazar is an infection due to the parasite called as Leishmania. This parasite is found in humans and transmitted by an insect known as sandfly. Untreated Kala Azar leads to death. It is predominantly seen in Eastern North India especially states such as Bihar , West Bengal & Assam. Epidemics of this disease occur periodically.
What are the symptoms of Kalaazar?
Patients with Kala azar present with fever, pallor and darkening of the skin especially on the face, hands and upper part of the body. Infact the term kalaazar means black disease (kala = black, azar = disease). There may be mild pain in abdomen. The doctor on examination will find enlargement of liver and spleen. Untreated, child may go on to develop other infections, liver disease, jaundice and even death.
How is the diagnosis of kalaazar made?
Diagnosis of Kala azar is made by demonstrating the parasite in the body. Commonly the parasite resides in the bone marrow, spleen and liver and thus biopsy from these areas are used to demonstrate the parasite.
What is the treatment of Kalaazar?
Kalaazar parasite can remain for very long time in the body. Thus, many times symptoms occur after long periods such as ½ or 2 years. Kalaazar is treated by specialized medicines and the course of treatment may last for 28 days to even 3months. Various injections such as amphotericin, pentamidine. sodium stibogluconate and newer tablets such as Miltefosine are used in the treatment of this disease. The patient with kala azar needs to be monitored for at least 6 months after treatment is over to watch for relapse.
How can kala azar be prevented?
Use curtain at sleeping time or mosquito quail or mosquito nets and mosquito coils. Application of mosquito repellants such as DEET can help to prevent insect bites when outdoors.
Is there any vaccine to prevent malaria?
There is no vaccine to prevent kalaazar.