YELLOW FEVER VACCINE - Immunization
 
YELLOW FEVER VACCINE
Last Updated : 4/13/2016
Sayenna Uduman
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Key Information:
• Yellow Fever (YF) virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito causing acute febrile hemorrhagic illness.
• YF disease is endemic and intermittently epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America and not in Asia.
• YF is a vaccine preventable disease and the vaccine is highly immunogenic. It is a safe vaccine. The protective immunity persists for more than 10 years following vaccination.
• Routine YF vaccination is not recommended in India but considered for certain groups of people.
• YF vaccine is given only at approved vaccination centers. International health regulations have set the requirements for proof of YF vaccination when travelling to specific endemic countries.

Virology & Epidemiologic backgrounds:
Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito borne acute viral hemorrhagic disease caused by a RNA virus from the family of flaviviridae. Mosquitoes become infected with the virus when they bite an infected human and non-human primates. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito, primarily by the Aedes aegypti female mosquito. The incubation period is 3 to 6 days. Humans infected with YF virus experience the highest levels of viremia and are infectious to mosquitoes shortly before the onset of fever and for 3 to 5 days afterwards
YF occurs year-round, predominantly in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (32 countries) and South America (13 countries), but not in Asia. In endemic areas, where the virus is present in monkeys is a potential risk to humans. Sustained transmission is not possible in India because the recognized mosquito vectors & the potential reservoirs are not present.

References

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Sayenna Uduman
MD, FAAP Visiting Professor, Infection Control Committee & ID Division of the KIMS
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India


First Created : 4/13/2016
Last Updated : 4/13/2016

References

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