YELLOW FEVER VACCINE - Immunization
 
YELLOW FEVER VACCINE
Last Updated : 4/13/2016
Sayenna Uduman
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Vaccine Preventable Disease:
Fatal case of YF continues to be reported among unimmunized travelers to endemic regions; vaccination is the only way to prevent YF disease. Those who live in areas populated by infected mosquitoes and those who haven’t been vaccinated for YF, are at risk. Prevention measures against YF should include, also protection against mosquito bites.
YF vaccine is a live-attenuated virus (17D strain) by serial passages in chicken embryo tissue culture. The vaccine preparation is lyophilized, kept under cold-chain conditions and is considered extremely safe. A single dose administration (subcutaneous or intramuscular) provides protection for at least 10 years or longer. More than 80% of persons immunized develop neutralizing antibodies 10 days after vaccination and more than 99% by 28 days after vaccination and immunity persists > 10 years. A booster dose after 10 years is recommended for those continue to live or travel in endemic areas. YF vaccine may be given at the same time as most other vaccines. The side effects are benign and transient in nature; may include a low grade fever, mild headache and fatigue.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends for all people 9 months or older traveling to or from certain countries with endemic disease or those living in those regions. Nursing mothers traveling with an infant who is 6 to 8 months old should either postpone travel to these areas if possible or talk to your doctor about vaccination. The decision to immunize infants below 9 months of age must balance the risk of exposure with the risk of vaccine-associated encephalitis at this vulnerable specific age group.
The IAP Advisory Committee on Vaccines & Immunization Practices 2013 -14 (the ACVIP) recommends YF vaccine for high risk category children under special circumstances. India imports YF vaccine to overcome vaccine shortages and vaccine is available only at the designated center. One should refer to the website for an updated list of Government Yellow Fever Vaccination Centers with contact information. For complete prescribing information, consult the product leaflet or information contained within Health Ministry authorized product monographs. (http://www.mohfw.nic.in/WriteReadData/l892s/54495385931449119270.pdf)
YF is unique among diseases in that there are international health regulations which outline the requirements for proof of vaccination when travelling to specific areas. In recent months, the WHO placed the southern African countries like Zambia and Namibia on high alert because of a ‘worst YF outbreak in 30 years’ occurring at the present time. Many of these, and other countries, will demand an YF certificate from travelers as a condition of entry to their country. Individuals planning to travel internationally and for more detailed information on the YF vaccine, including adverse events, precautions, and contraindications visit CDC website (wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/).

In summary:
• YF is a serious febrile hemorrhagic illness with dreadful complications and it is a vaccine preventable disease.
• Apart from vaccination, disease prevention measures should include personnel protection against mosquito bites.
• Under regulations set out by the WHO, anyone travelling to a country or area where there is a risk of contracting YF disease, must have an International Certificate of Vaccination, before travelling.

References

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Sayenna Uduman
MD, FAAP Visiting Professor, Infection Control Committee & ID Division of the KIMS
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India


First Created : 4/13/2016
Last Updated : 4/13/2016

References

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