Opium (Afim)

Opium is the dried juice of the white poppy {papaver somniferum}, when the capsule is still on the plant. It is dark brown or black and has a peculiar smell and has a bitter taste. Poppy seeds are white, harmless, demulcent and nutritive and are used as food.

Active principle: it has about 25 alkaloids, the major ones being,
1. Phenanthrene: morphine, codeine and thebaine
2. Isoquinolines: papaverine, narcotine and noscapine

The opiods are either natural {morphine, codeine}, semi-synthetic {heroin, hydromorphone, oxycodone} and synthetic{meperidine, methadone, fentanyl,etc}

Other aspects related to opium:
• Codeine is methyl morphine which is used a cough suppressant.
• Heroin is diacetyl morphine
• Brown sugar is crude heroin
• Morphine and pethidine are used as anelgesics
• Homicidal and accidental poisoning is common among infants and children


Route :
Ingestion of opium or its alkaloids or injection of morphine
Fatal Dose :
2gms, morphine 0.2gms, codeine 0.5gms
Fatal Period :
6 to 12 hours
Clinical Picture :
Stage1: Stage of excitement and euphoria
There is increased sense of well being, increased mental activity, flushing of face. Convulsions are seen in children

Stage 2: Stage of stupor
Headache, nausea, vomiting, giddiness, lethargy, drowsiness, contracted pupils, cyanosed face and itching all over the body.

Stage 3: Stage of narcosis
Deep coma, muscles relaxed, areflexia, pin point pupils-not responding to light, hypotension, sweating, hypothermia, cyanosis and froth at mouth and nose.

The triad of coma, pin point pupils and depressed respiration{4-5 per minute} strongly suggests opium poisoning

Treatment :
• Gastric lavage {even for injected morphine as it is excreted in the stomach}
• Enema and purgatives
• High tension oxygen and Coramine as cardio-respiratory stimulant
• Symptomatic treatment
• Antidote: Naloxone 1-2mg I.V. every 5 minutes till patient becomes conscious and pupils dilate.

05/29/2022 10:16:05 Opium (Afim)
Disclaimer: The information given by www.pediatriconcall.com is provided by medical and paramedical & Health providers voluntarily for display & is meant only for informational purpose. The site does not guarantee the accuracy or authenticity of the information. Use of any information is solely at the user's own risk. The appearance of advertisement or product information in the various section in the website does not constitute an endorsement or approval by Pediatric Oncall of the quality or value of the said product or of claims made by its manufacturer.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0