Drug Index

Chloroquine

 
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Synonym :

Hydroxychloroquine

Mechanism :

Chloroquine phosphate is a 4-aminoquinoline compound for oral administration. Chloroquine is an antimalarial and amoebicidal drug. The drug possesses antimalarial actions and exerts a beneficial effect in lupus erythematosus (chronic discoid or systemic) and acute or chronic rheumatoid arthritis. The precise mechanism of action is not known.


Indication :

• Malaria (Vivax malaria)

• Amoebic liver abscess

• Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)

• Porphyria

• Systemic lupus erythematosus

• Discoid lupus erythematosus

• Polymorphic light eruptions

• Rheumatoid Arthritis

• Porphyria Cutaneous Tarda (off-label)


Contraindications :

Contraindicated in the presence of retinal or visual field changes attributable to any 4-aminoquinoline compound, in patients with known hypersensitivity to 4-aminoquinoline compounds, and for long-term therapy in children.


Dosing :

Malaria:

Oral.10 mg/kg as loading dose followed by 5 mg/kg after 6 hours. Then 5 mg/kg every 24 hours till total dose is 25 mg/kg.

Malaria Prophylaxis:

5 mg/kg base once PO a week. To be given 1-2 week before entering the area and to be continued for 4 weeks after return.

Other conditions:

5-6.5 mg/kg (Max: 400 mg) once daily. Adjusted according to plasma levels in severe renal and hepatic impairment.


Adverse Effect :

QT prolongation, nausea, diarrhoea, anorexia, abdominal cramps, irreversible retinal damage (rare), corneal opacities. skin rashes, pigmentary changes, bleaching of hair and hair loss, methemoglobinemia. Hydroxychloroquine may precipitate attacks of psoriasis.


Interaction :

Digoxin: Plasma digoxin levels may be increased.
Antacids: Ab­sorption of hydroxychloroquine may be reduced by antacids. Hydroxychloroquine may also be subject to the known interactions of chloroquine even though specific re­ports have not appeared.
Ampicillin: Chloroquine significantly reduced the bioavailability of ampicillin. An interval of at least two hours between intake of this agent and chloroquine should be observed.
Cyclosporin: After introduction of chloroquine, a sudden increase in serum cyclosporin level has been reported. Therefore, close monitoring of serum cyclosporin level is recommended.


07/18/2019 01:55:05 Chloroquine
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