ISSN - 0973-0958

Pediatric Oncall Journal View Article

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in Indian Children: A Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study
Jaishree Vasudevan1, Gopireddy Murali Mohan Reddy2, Antony Jenifer1, Thayumanavan S1, Uma Devi1, Rathinasamy M1.
1Department of Pediatrics, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India,
2Department of Community Medicine, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Aim: To determine the prevalence and clinical, socio-economic and demographic factors determining hypovitaminosis D in children aged 6 months and 18 years.

Material and methods: Hospital based Cross-sectional study, conducted in pediatric outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital. A sample of 230 children between 6 months and 18 years attending OPD, who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study by systematic random sampling. The relevant socio-demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters (including serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25 hydroxy Vitamin D3 levels) of the study population were assessed using standardized questionnaire and laboratory investigations.

Results:The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 62.2%. However, only 7(3%) had overt rickets.The odds ratio of hypovitaminosis D were 1.3(95% CI 0.7-2.4), 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-4)and 5.3(95% CI 0.6-44.3) times higher in 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years and above 15 years respectively, compared with children below 5 years. Female children were 1.9 (95% CI 1.3 to 4.0) times more at risk of having vitamin D deficiencywhen compared to males. The odds of hypovitaminosis D were 1.8 (95% CI 0.8 to 3.8, p-value 0.12), 4.2 (95% CI 2.1 to 8.5, p-value< 0.01), and 6.9 (95% CI 2.3 to 20.5, p-value< 0.05) times more in lower middle, upper middle and upper socio economic groups respectively when compared with lower socio economic status children.The odds of hypovitaminosis D were 1.3 (95% CI 0.2 to 7.7, p-value 0.74), 2.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 7.5, p-value 0.07), and 6.3 (95% CI 1.5 to 25.4, p-value 0.01) times more children with mother’s educated up to primary school, graduation and post graduation when compared to children of illiterate mothers.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was very high in Indian children. Female sex, higher socio economic status, higher educational status of the mother were the factors with strong positive association with hypovitaminosis D.

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