Carbon monoxide(CO)

It is colorless, odorless, tasteless, non - irritative gas which burns with blue flame. CO is produced due to incomplete combustion of carbon and therefore CO is present in coal gas, all burning devices, kilns, combustion engines and exhaust gas of vehicles.
Route :
Fatal Dose :
depends on the amount of CO present in the atmosphere
Mechanism of action :
•It has 200-300 times greater affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen and therefore produces carboxyhemoglobin, hence reducing the oxygen content of blood and tissues
•CO also exerts its toxic effect by binding to cellular cytochromes

Clinical Picture :
The features of poisoning depend on the percent of carboxyhemoglobin present in the blood
1.0 -10 percent : No appreciable features
2.10-20 percent: Breathlessness, headache, flushed skin
3.20-30 percent: All of above and buzzing in ears, muscle weakness and incoordination and dyspnoea
4.30-40 percent: All of above and dizziness, nausea , vomiting, collapse on exertion, loss of memory, mental confusion and diminution of vision
5.40-50 percent: All of above intensified, staggering, palpitations and retinal hemorrhages
6.50-70 percent: All of above and asphyxial convulsions, coma respiratory paralysis
7.Above 70 percent: rapidly fatal due to respiratory failure

Other features: patches on skin, blisters, albumin and sugar in urine, bronchopneumonia and edema of lungs and brain

Treatment :
•Move patient to fresh air immediately
•Care of respiration
•100 percent oxygen provided with a tight fitting mask
•Blood transfusion
•S.C. adrenaline and coramine
•I.V. mannitol and dextrose
02/22/2024 18:36:53 Carbon monoxide(CO)
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