Kumud P Mehta
Polyuria - Introduction
Definition: Polyuria is defined as urine output > 2000ml per 1.73M2 /24 hr or more than 2.5-3 ml/kg/24 hrs. Accurate measurement of 24 hours intake of fluids and quantity of urine passed should be done to establish diagnosis of polyuria.

Common causes of polyuria:
- Polydipsia or excessive fluid intake, which can be psychogenic.
- Solute diuresis e.g. glucosuria in diabetes mellitus, calcium in hypercalciuria, sodium chloride in Barter's syndrome and nephronophthisis, Sodium Bicarbonate in renal tubular acidosis, Fanconi's syndrome or cystinosis.
- Vasopressin or ADH deficiency as in central diabetes insipidus due to hypothalamic or pituitary disorders.
- Resistance to ADH action at the site of renal tubules as in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
- Chronic renal failure with concentration defect.
- Structural malformations of kidney like obstructive uropathy, hydronephrosis, chronic pyelonephritis with reflux nephropathy etc.

Polyuria Polyuria 01/09/2002
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