Drug Index

Propranolol

 
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Mechanism :

Propranolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent possessing no other autonomic nervous system activity. It specifically competes with beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating agents for available receptor sites.


Indication :

• Supraventricular arrhythmias

• Ventricular tachycardia

• Tachyarrhythmia of digitalis-intoxication

• Hypertension

• Prophylaxis of common migraine

• Familial or hereditary essential tremor

• Hyperthyroidism with autonomic symptoms

• Infantile hemangioma (off-label)

• Fallot’s tetralogy (Cyanotic spells)

• Portal hypertension.


Contraindications :

Propranolol is contraindicated in cardiogenic shock, sinus bradycardia and greater than first degree block, bronchial asthma, congestive heart failure unless the failure is secondary to a tachyarrhythmia treatable with Propranolol.


Dosing :

Infantile Hemangioma:

Initially start with 0.6 mg/kg PO twice daily for 2 weeks, followed by increase to 1.1 mg/kg twice daily; after additional 2 weeks, increase to 1.7 mg/kg twice daily maintenance dose.

Hypertension and Portal hypertension:

0.5 mg/kg/day PO in 6-12 hourly divided doses, followed by gradual increase every 5-7 days Range: 2-4 mg/kg/day PO in 12 hourly divided doses. Max: 40-80 mg/day.

Arrhythmias:

0.5-1 mg/kg/day PO in 6-8 hourly divided doses; may be gradually increased every 3-7 days (range: 2-6 mg/kg/day; maximum dose: 16 mg/kg/day or 60 mg/day).

IV: 0.01-0.1 mg/kg over 10 mins; to be repeated every 6-8 hourly as and when required. Max: 1 mg for infants/3 mg for children.

Cyanotic spells:

1 mg/kg/day PO in 6 hourly divided doses; may be increased after a week by 1 mg/kg/day to maximum of 10-15 mg/kg/day in case refractory (keep a gap of 24 hours between dose changes).

Thyrotoxicosis:

1 to 2 mg/kg/day PO, given in divided doses every 6 to 12 hours.

Migraine prophylaxis:

0.6 to 3 mg/kg/day PO given in 2 to 3 divided doses; Max daily dose: 60 mg in <35 kg and 120 mg in >30 kg.

Essential tremors:

0.5 to 1 mg/kg/day PO, given in 3 divided doses. Gradually increase once weekly.

Max: 4 mg/kg/day PO or 60 to 80 mg/day PO in adolescents.


Adverse Effect :

Bradycardia, postural hypotension, precipitation of heart block, intermittent claudication, Raynaud’s phenomena, dizziness, confusion, mood changes, nightmares, hallucinations, paraesthesia, bronchospasm, hypoglycemia, purpura, thrombocytopenia.


Interaction :

Calcium Channel Blockers: Additive effect.
Prostaglandin Synthase Inhibiting Drugs: Decrease the hypotensive effects of beta blockers.
Catecholamine-depleting drugs such as reserpine: Hypotension, marked bradycardia, vertigo, syncopal attacks, or orthostatic hypotension.
Haloperidol: Hypotension and cardiac arrest.
Theophylline: Clearance is reduced.
Cimetidine: Increasing blood levels.
Chlorpromazine: Increased plasma levels of both drugs.
Phenytoin, Phenobarbitone and Rifampin: Accelerate propranolol clearance.
Ethanol: Slows the rate of absorption of propranolol.
Aluminium Hydroxide Gel: Greatly reduces intestinal absorption of propranolol.


07/14/2019 07:23:23 Propranolol
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