Pneumococcal Vaccine

Sayenna Uduman
Types of Pneumococcal Vaccines
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV): There are currently 2 types of conjugated pneumococcal vaccines: PCV10 and PCV13. PCV10 contains ten serotypes of pneumococcus (1, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) which are conjugated to a carrier protein. PCV13 contains thirteen serotypes of pneumococcus (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F).

Efficacy and Added Benefit of PCV13
Prelicensure studies demonstrated PCV13 to be at least as immunogenic as PCV7 for common serotypes, and to induce comparable levels of antibodies for serotypes unique to PCV13. Each of the six new serotypes selected for PCV13 represents a specific target for prevention that is an important cause of ‘epidemic’ IPD on a global basis , or has emerged as a frequent cause of invasive disease in at least some of the countries where PCV7 has been introduced (19A, 7F, 3), or represents a cross-reactive serotype that has persisted as a potential cause of IPD (6A) or expanded its role in colonization in children but may not as yet have been demonstrated to be a frequent cause of IPD (6C).
Since the PCV introduction in immunization practice, the incidence of all IPD decreased by 76% in children younger than 5 years, in US. This has also resulted reduction in adult cases 65 years and older indicates the significant indirect benefit (Herd immunity) of PCV by interruption of transmission of pneumococci from children to adults. Further pneumococcal disease reductions in children of all ages, have been demonstrated up to this date (CDC data, Redbook, 2015) and the same should be observed in Indian children. A recent study from India indicated that 73% of the pneumococcal isolates cover PCV13 containing serotypes. (J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013; 7:101–9)

Safety and Efficacy of PCV13
PCV-13 is well tolerated and has a good safety profile. It induces a T-cell dependent immune response characterized by immune memory as well as a booster antibody response on subsequent challenge with the pneumococcal polysaccharides included in the vaccine. It also stimulates mucosal immunity, resulting in reduced nasopharyngeal carriage. The herd immunity effect observed with this vaccine is most likely the result of reduced transmission of vaccine-type pneumococci in the community as a result of decreased carriage.

Non-conjugate Capsular Polysaccharide 23 Valent Vaccine (PPSV23)
It has an overall protective efficacy of about 60%–70%. Children under two years of age, and persons suffering from immunodeficiency do not consistently develop immunity following vaccination, thus reducing the protective value of the vaccine in some major target groups for pneumococcal disease. It is meant for high risk children > 2 years and adults. The PPSV23 protects and cover 10 additional serotypes that are contained in the PCV13 formulation.

Pneumococcal Vaccine Pneumococcal Vaccine 02/29/2016
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