Drug Index

Ethambutol

 
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Mechanism :

Ethambutol is an oral chemotherapeutic agent which is specifically effective against actively growing Mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis. Ethambutol inhibits arabinosyl transferases which is involved in cell wall biosynthesis. By inhibiting this enzyme, the bacterial cell wall complex production is inhibited. This leads to an increase in cell wall permeability. No cross resistance with other available antimycobacterial agents has been demonstrated.


Indication :

• Tuberculosis

• Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis


Contraindications :

Ethambutol is contraindicated in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to this drug, in patients with known optic neuritis, in patients who are unable to appreciate and report visual side effects or changes in vision (e.g., young children, unconscious patients. Ethambutol should be used with caution in children until they are at least 1 years old capable of reporting symptomatic visual changes accurately. Patients should undergo a full ophthalmic examination before starting treatment.


Dosing :

Dose: 20 mg/kg orally once a day; Max: 1000 mg/day.


Adverse Effect :

Red/green colour blindness, optic neuritis, rash, pruritus, peripheral neuritis, urticaria, thrombocytopenia, vomiting and nausea, diarrhea have been reported in patients.


Interaction :

Aluminium hydroxide: Reduction of mean serum concentrations of ethambutol.


07/19/2019 03:03:27 Ethambutol
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