Drug Index

Isoniazid

 
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Synonym :

INH

Mechanism :

Isoniazid inhibits the synthesis of mycologic acids, an essential component of the bacterial cell wall. At therapeutic levels isoniazid is bactericidal against actively growing intracellular and extracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms. lsoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli develop rapidly when lsoniazid monotherapy is administered.


Indication :

• Prophylaxis and treatment of tuberculosis


Contraindications :

Isoniazid is contraindicated in patients who develop severe hypersensitivity reactions, including drug -induced hepatitis; previous isoniazid-associated hepatic injury; severe adverse reactions to isoniazid such as drug fever, chills, arthritis; and acute liver disease of any etiology.


Dosing :

10 mg/kg/day PO for the entire course of treatment. Max: 300 mg/day.


Adverse Effect :

Common: Peripheral neuropathy.

Uncommon: Memory impairment, optic neuritis and atrophy, toxic encephalopathy, convulsions, and toxic psychosis. Elevated serum transaminase (SGOT SGPT), jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia, nausea, vomiting, epigastric distress, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, sideroblastic, hemolytic, or aplastic anemia, and eosinophilia, systemic Lupus Erythematosus, fever, lymphadenopathy, skin eruptions, vasculitis, pyridoxine deficiency, metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, pellagra, and gynecomastia.


Interaction :

Food: Isoniazid should not be administered with food. Studies have shown that the bioavailability of isoniazid is reduced significantly when administered with food.
Carbamazepine: Isoniazid is known to slow the metabolism of carbamazepine and increase serum levels Carbamazepine levels.
Ketoconazole: Potential interaction of Ketoconazole and Isoniazid may exist.
Phenytoin: Isoniazid may increase serum levels of phenytoin.
Theophylline: A recent study has shown that concomitant administration of isoniazid and theophylline may cause elevated plasma levels of theophylline, and in some instances a slight decrease in the elimination of isoniazid.
Valproate: A recent case study has shown a possible increase in the plasma level of valproate when co administered with isoniazid.


07/14/2019 07:31:00 Isoniazid
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