Drug Index

Oral Polio Vaccine

 
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Synonym :

OPV

Mechanism :

Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) contains live attenuated poliovirus and is intended for polio prophylaxis in infants 6-12 weeks of age, all unimmunized children up to 18 years of age, and high-risk adults. Adults, however, should receive the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). The attenuated virus particles in OPV are harvested from monkey kidney cell cultures and undergo an extensive purification process. OPV is administered multiple times to ensure immunity to all three types of poliovirus.


Indication :

• Poliomyelitis prophylaxis

• Poliomyelitis eradication


Contraindications :

The poliovirus vaccine should be used with caution in patients with a history of neomycin hypersensitivity or streptomycin hypersensitivity because these agents may be used in the preparation of OPV. A history of delayed-type allergic reactions is not an absolute contraindication to OPV administration.


Dosing :

Oral: 2 drops. OPV 0 is given at birth, followed by OPV1 at 6 months, OPV2 at 9 months and OPV3 at 4-6 years of age. OPV can be given for all the primary doses in cases where IPV is not possible. Additional doses of OPV on all pulse polio days for children till 5 years of age.


Adverse Effect :

Paralytic poliomyelitis is the only significant adverse reaction.


Interaction :

Concomitant administration of Immunosuppressives (Corticosteroids, Alkylating Agents, Antimetabolites, Radiation Therapy): Can decrease the immunological response to OPV and potentiate viral replication. Immunization should be deferred until the completion of immunosuppressive therapy. When administered within 1 month of other live virus vaccines (such as MMR), OPV may not induce an adequate immune response. Whenever possible, however, OPV and other live virus vaccines should be administered at least 1 month apart.

Vaccines: However, concurrent administration of OPV with cholera vaccine, typhoid vaccine, or plague vaccine may be associated with significant adverse reactions and should be avoided.


07/18/2019 12:10:44 Oral Polio Vaccine
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