Drug Index

Ethosuximide

 
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Mechanism :

Ethosuximide suppresses the paroxysmal three cycle per second spike and wave activity associated with lapses of consciousness which is common in absence seizures. The frequency of seizures is reduced by depression of the motor cortex and elevation of the seizure threshold of the central nervous system to convulsive stimuli.
Binds to T-type voltage sensitive calcium channels.


Indication :

• Absence seizures


Contraindications :

Ethosuximide should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to succinimides.


Dosing :

Under 3 years: Safety and efficacy not established.

3-6 years: 250 mg orally once daily initially; if needed, may increase by 250 mg every four hourly for 7 days; usual maintenance dose 20 mg/kg/day.

Above 6 years: As adults, 500 mg orally once daily initially; may increase by 250 mg every four hourly for 7 days; Max: 1.5 g/day in divided doses.

Therapeutic range: 40-100 mg/L (steady state) is reached in 4-7 days.


Adverse Effect :

Nausea and vomiting, anorexia, epigastric and abdominal pain, cramps, weight loss, diarrhea, leukopenia, pancytopenia with or without bone marrow suppression, agranulocytosis, eosinophilia, drowsiness, dizziness, headache, hiccups, euphoria, irritability, hyperactivity, fatigue, lethargy, ataxia, urticaria, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, hirsutism, vaginal bleeding, microscopic hematuria.


Interaction :

Phenytoin: Ethosuximide may increase plasma levels of phenytoin.
Carbamazepine, Phenobarbitone, Primidone, Phenytoin: Ethosuximide plasma levels may be decreased.
Sodium Valproate, Vigabatrin and Isoniazid: Ethosuximide plasma levels may be increased
Antidepressants and antipsychotics: may antagonize effects of ethosuximide.


08/06/2019 12:15:40 Ethosuximide
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