Pulmonary Atresia and Pulmonary Stenosis

Miroslav Elek
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Pulmonary Atresia and Pulmonary Stenosis - Introduction
Pulmonary atresia (PA) is hypoplasia and complete closure of outflow part of right ventricle and/or pulmonary artery and the crucial factor for the primary presentation and prognosis is existence or non-existence of patent ductus arteriosis (PDA). It can be with or without ventricular septal defect (VSD).
Pulmonary stenosis (PS) is narrowing of one or more parts from the outflow tract of right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The most common is pulmonary valvar stenosis and it is classified according to pressure gradient as trivial (= 20 mmHg), mild (21-40 mmHg), moderate (41-70 mmHg) and severe (>70 mmHg). Pulmonary stenosis can be associated with some of the syndomes such as Noonan, Williams, Alagile and others. The incidence of obstructive congenital defects of pulmonary artery among other congenital heart defects is about 7-10%. Genetic, environmental and familial factors are included in multifactorial etiology of pulmonary atresia and stenosis.


References
Pulmonary Atresia and Pulmonary Stenosis Pulmonary Atresia and Pulmonary Stenosis 05/14/2016
Pulmonary Atresia and Pulmonary Stenosis - Presentation >>
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