Endocardial Cushion Defect

N C Joshi
Consultant Pediatrician, Nanavati Hospital, Mumbai
First Created: 01/17/2001 

Endocardial Cushion Defect Types

Partial: Ostium primum

Complete: Atrioventricular canal

Figure 1: Diagrammatic illustrations of complete endocardial cushion defect viewed with the LA and LV posterior wall removed. Cleft mitral and tricuspid valves with resulting common AV valve are compared with normal AV valves.

Diagrammatic illustrations of complete endocardial cushion defect


  • 30% of the defects occur in Down's syndrome

  • Partial defects are usually asymptomatic

  • Complete- CHF

Physical Examination:

  • Undernourished

  • Hyperactive precordium with holosystolic murmur at LLSB

  • Loud P2, mid-diastolic rumble at the apex

  • Liver enlargement

Figure 2: Cardiac findings of complete endocardial cushion defects(ECD), which resemble that of VSD. A systolic thrill may be present at the LLSB (dotted area), where the systolic murmur is the loudest.

Cardiac findings of complete endocardial cushion defects



  • Superior QRS axis; 1st degree AV block

  • RVH or BVH

Chest X-ray:

  • Heart size enlarged

  • Pulmonary vascularity increased


Closure of ostium primum defect at 2-5 years

Closure of complete defect at 6 months of age.

Endocardial Cushion Defect Endocardial Cushion Defect https://www.pediatriconcall.com/show_article/default.aspx?main_cat=pediatric-cardiology&sub_cat=endocardial-cushion-defect&url=endocardial-cushion-defect-introduction 2001-01-17
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