Laboratory Diagnosis
Clinical symptomatology of malaria is not specific and resembles many other diseases and hence there is a necessity of investigations. Malaria is diagnosed by microscopic examination of peripheral blood-thin and thick smears, after staining with JSB stain fields or Giemsa stain.

The thin film is more accurate for parasite counting, however at low parasitemia (< 5 per 100 RBCs), thick film should be counted. Presence of pigment in neutrophils and monocyte is important clue to the diagnosis and is even seen after anti-malarial treatment.

Special new techniques include:
- Indirect flourescent antibody test,
- Enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay (ELISA),
- DNA probe test which is specific for P.falciparum,
- A solid phase radio immuno-assay,
- Immunoblot test (Dip stick test) which does not need microscope and detects tropozoite derived histidine rich protein-2 (HRP-2),
- QBC test (Qualitative Buffy Coat test) which is rapid method for diagnosing of malarial parasite in the blood and is highly sensitive and specific,
- Malarial parasite staining -green (DNA) and orange (RNA) under the ultraviolet light.

Malaria Malaria 04/02/2001
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